Brown and red discolorations typically occur as a result of overexposure to sunlight. UV exposure effects our skin at different levels, UVA rays are also known as aging rays. These rays penetrate deep into the skin and cause genetic damage and cell death. These rays weaken the collagen and elastin fibers causing wrinkling and sagging in tissue. UVB rays are also known as the burning rays, they cause tanning, burning, aging and cancer. They do not penetrate as deep as UVA rays although these rays are stronger and more damaging to the skin and eyes. Sun exposure causes Melanocytes (Tanning cells) to stimulate pigmentation. This is designed to help protect against the suns UV radiation, they absorb the UV radiation. But these cells can be altered or destroyed in large and frequent doses as their ability to protect deteriorates with more sun exposure. Using an SPF will do more then just protect the skin, it also defends the cells from radiation, cell death, tissue break down and aging.
Free Radicals are chemically active atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons or oxidant. The have an unequal number of electrons or and unbalanced electrical charge. Free radicles are generated by many factors including UV, unhealthy food, chemicals, smoking and trauma. When they are exposed to sunlight they damage skin cells by attacking the cell membrane causing photoaging, pigmentation, redness, inflammation and disease. Balancing free radicles with an antioxidant daily will help to protect the skin against free radicle damage and future sun damage to tissue.